Construir frases interrogativas y negativas

Construir frases negativas e interrogativas en inglés

Notas a tener en cuenta a la hora de construir frases negativas e interrogativas

A la hora de construir frases en inglés es importante tener en cuenta que hay dos maneras de hacer frases negativas e interrogativas que vendrá determinado por si estamos ante el verbo ser/estar (to be), el verbo tener (have got) o el resto de verbos.

Los verbos to be y have got no necesitan ninguna partícula adicional para hacer preguntas o negaciones. En cambio, el resto de verbos necesitan lo que se llama un auxiliar, en este caso el “Do”.

Ejemplo con To be
Frase afirmativa: I am tired / I’m tired (Estoy cansado)
Frase negativa: I am not tired / I’m not tired (No estoy cansado)
Frase interrogativa: Am I tired? (¿estoy cansado?)

Ejemplo con Have got
Frase afirmativa: They have got a car / They’ve got a car (Tienen un coche)
Frase negativa: They have not got a car / They haven’t got a car (No tienen un coche)
Frase interrogativa: Have they got a car? (¿Tienen un coche?)

Nota a tener en cuenta con los verbos Have got/Have
Los dos verbos significan tener. La única diferencia está el uso del auxiliar en el momento de hacer frases interrogativas o frases negativas. En la forma have got el verbo have ya hace de auxiliar, pero el verbo have sí necesita el auxiliar do para construir la frase negativa e interrogativa.

Ejemplo con Have
Frase afirmativa: I have a car (Tengo un coche)
Frase negativa: I do not have a car / I don’t have a car (No tengo un coche)
Frase interrogativa: Do I have a car? (¿Tengo un coche?)

Otros verbos
Frase afirmativa: You dance every day (Bailas cada día)
Frase negativa: You do not dance every day / You don’t dance every day (No bailas cada día)
Frase interrogativa: Do you dance every dance? (¿Bailas cada día?)

Contracciones de los verbos
Es importante notar el aspecto de las contracciones de los verbos. Las dos formas son correctas, sin embargo la contracción es más utilizada en el día a día, en conversaciones informales.
Si en lugar de decir “They haven’t got a car” decimos “They have not got a car” lo que estaríamos haciendo es poniendo énfasis en el hecho de que ellos no tienen un coche.

Es aconsejable que cuando hagamos un un escrito formal no utilicemos las contracciones, ya que demostraríamos un registro inadecuado.

Preguntas y frases negativas – Questions and negative statements

Questions and negative statements

As is the case with other English tenses, questions and negative statements in the Present Perfect are formed using the auxiliary. In the case of the Present Perfect, the auxiliary is have or has.

a. Questions
In order to form a question, the auxiliary is placed before the subject of the verb. For example:

Affirmative Statement Question
I have worked. Have I worked?
You have worked. Have you worked?
He has worked. Has he worked?
She has worked. Has she worked?
It has worked. Has it worked?
We have worked. Have we worked?
They have worked. Have they worked?

b. Negative statements
In order to form a negative statement, the word not is placed after the auxiliary. For example:

Affirmative Statement Negative Statement
I have worked. I have not worked.
You have worked. You have not worked.
He has worked. He has not worked.
She has worked. She has not worked.
It has worked. It has not worked.
We have worked. We have not worked.
They have worked. They have not worked.

The following contractions are often used in spoken English:

Without Contractions With Contractions
have not haven’t
has not hasn’t

c. Negative questions
In order to form a negative question, the auxiliary is placed before the subject, and the word not is placed after the subject. However, when contractions are used, the contracted form of not follows immediately after the auxiliary. For example:

Without Contractions With Contractions
Have I not worked? Haven’t I worked?
Have you not worked? Haven’t you worked?
Has he not worked? Hasn’t he worked?
Has she not worked? Hasn’t she worked?
Has it not worked? Hasn’t it worked?
Have we not worked? Haven’t we worked?
Have they not worked? Haven’t they worked?

d. Tag questions
Tag questions are also formed using the auxiliary. In the following examples, the negative tag questions are underlined.

Affirmative Statement Affirmative Statement with Tag Question
I have worked. I have worked, haven’t I?
You have worked. You have worked, haven’t you?
He has worked. He has worked, hasn’t he?
She has worked. She has worked, hasn’t she?
It has worked. It has worked, hasn’t it?
We have worked. We have worked, haven’t we?
They have worked. They have worked, haven’t they?

Traducción:

Preguntas y frases negativas

Como es el caso de otros tiempos Inglés, preguntas y declaraciones negativas en el presente perfecto se forman utilizando el auxiliar. En el caso de el presente perfecto, el auxiliar se tiene o ha.

a. Preguntas
Con el fin de formar una pregunta, el auxiliar se coloca antes de que el sujeto del verbo. Por ejemplo:

b. Declaraciones negativas
Con el fin de una forma negativa, la palabra no se encuentra después de la auxiliar. Por ejemplo:


Los siguientes contracciones se utilizan a menudo habla en Inglés:

c. Negativo preguntas
Con el fin de formar una cuestión negativa, el auxiliar se coloca antes de este asunto, y la palabra no se coloca después de este tema. Sin embargo, cuando las contracciones se utilizan, la forma de contratados no sigue inmediatamente después de la auxiliar. Por ejemplo:

d. question tags
Etiqueta preguntas también se forman utilizando el auxiliar. En los siguientes ejemplos, la negativa etiqueta preguntas están subrayados.

Frases negativas con gerundio en inglés – Negative statements with Present Continuous

Negative statements
To form a negative statement, the word not is added after the auxiliary. For example:

Affirmative Statement Negative Statement
I am working. I am not working.
You are working. You are not working.
He is working. He is not working.
She is working. She is not working.
It is working. It is not working.
We are working. We are not working.
They are working. They are not working.

Traducción:

Declaraciones negativas
Para formar una declaración negativa, la palabra no se añade después del auxiliar. Por ejemplo:

Negative statements – Frases negativas

Negative statements
In order to form a negative statement, the Simple Present of the auxiliary do followed by the word not is placed before the bare
infinitive of the verb. For example:

Affirmative Statement Negative Statement
I work. I do not work.
You work. You do not work.
He works. He does not work.
She works. She does not work.
It works. It does not work.
We work. We do not work.
They work. They do not work.

In spoken English, the following contractions are often used:

Without contractions With contractions
do not don’t
does not doesn’t

Traducción:

Declaraciones negativas
Con el fin de formar una declaración negativa, el Presente Simple de los auxiliares do, seguido de la palabra no se encuentra ante el desnudo
infinitivo del verbo. Por ejemplo:

Declaración afirmativa declaración negativa

Ejercicios de gramática – to be, preguntas con to be, frases negativas, tag questions

Te proponemos unos ejercicios de gramática.
Las soluciones las tienes más abajo.

ETXETRCISES

1. Change the following pairs of words into sentences, using the correct forms of the Simple Present of the verb to be. For example:
I, cautious
I am cautious.

they, friendly
They are friendly.

1. you, careful
2. it, warm
3. he, here
4. we, bold
5. they, careless
6. she, clever
7. we, ready
8. you, reckless
9. I, shy
10. they, polite
2. Change the affirmative statements resulting from Exercise 1 into questions. For example:
I am cautious.
Am I cautious?

They are friendly.
Are they friendly?
3. Change the affirmative statements resulting from Exercise 1 into negative statements. For example:
I am cautious.
I am not cautious.

They are friendly.
They are not friendly.
4. Change the affirmative statements resulting from Exercise 1 into negative questions. Except where the subject of the verb is I, write both the form without contractions and the form with contractions. For example:
I am cautious.
Am I not cautious?

They are friendly.
Are they not friendly?
Aren’t they friendly?
5. Add negative tag questions to the ends of the affirmative statements resulting from Exercise 1. Except where the subject of the verb is I, use contractions for the tag questions. For example:
I am cautious.
I am cautious, am I not?

They are friendly.
They are friendly, aren’t they?
6. Using the Simple Present of the verb to be, and making sure that the word order is correct, form the following groups of words into grammatically correct statements or questions. If the symbol ? is present, form the words into a question. If the word not is present, form the words into a negative statement or negative question. Do not use contractions in this exercise. For example:
it, brown
It is brown.

you, ?, excited
Are you excited?

I, satisfied, not
I am not satisfied.

not, ?, they, ready
Are they not ready?

1. you, ?, hungry
2. we, ?, not, correct
3. he, ?, happy
4. not, ?, it, cold
5. she, here
6. I, early, ?
7. they, wrong, not
8. you, ?, comfortable
9. they, ?, not, strong
10. not, ?, I, fortunate
11. it, slippery, ?
12. not, you, late
13. it, not, ?, important
14. we, famous
15. they, present, ?
Answers

ANSWERS TO THE EXERCISES

Answers to Exercise 1:
1. You are careful. 2. It is warm. 3. He is here. 4. We are bold. 5. They are careless. 6. She is clever. 7. We are ready. 8. You are reckless. 9. I am shy. 10. They are polite.

Answers to Exercise 2:
1. Are you careful? 2. Is it warm? 3. Is he here? 4. Are we bold? 5. Are they careless? 6. Is she clever? 7. Are we ready? 8. Are you reckless? 9. Am I shy? 10. Are they polite?

Answers to Exercise 3:
1. You are not careful. 2. It is not warm. 3. He is not here. 4. We are not bold. 5. They are not careless. 6. She is not clever. 7. We are not ready. 8. You are not reckless. 9. I am not shy. 10. They are not polite.

Answers to Exercise 4:
1. Are you not careful? Aren’t you careful? 2. Is it not warm? Isn’t it warm? 3. Is he not here? Isn’t he here? 4. Are we not bold? Aren’t we bold? 5. Are they not careless? Aren’t they careless? 6. Is she not clever? Isn’t she clever? 7. Are we not ready? Aren’t we ready? 8. Are you not reckless? Aren’t you reckless? 9. Am I not shy? 10. Are they not polite? Aren’t they polite?

Answers to Exercise 5:
1. You are careful, aren’t you? 2. It is warm, isn’t it? 3. He is here, isn’t he? 4. We are bold, aren’t we? 5. They are careless, aren’t they? 6. She is clever, isn’t she? 7. We are ready, aren’t we? 8. You are reckless, aren’t you? 9. I am shy, am I not? 10. They are polite, aren’t they?

Answers to Exercise 6:
1. Are you hungry? 2. Are we not correct? 3. Is he happy? 4. Is it not cold? 5. She is here. 6. Am I early? 7. They are not wrong. 8. Are you comfortable? 9. Are they not strong? 10. Am I not fortunate? ii. Is it slippery? 12. You are not late. 13. Is it not important? 14. We are famous. 15. Are they present?

Negative statements – Frases negativas con To Be

In the Simple Present of the verb to be, negative statements are formed by adding the word not after the verb.
e.g. I am not awake.
They are not ready.
In the first example, not follows the verb am. In the second example, not follows the verb are.

In spoken English, the following contractions are often used:

Without contractions With contractions
is not isn’t
are not aren’t

Traducción:

En el presente simple del verbo ser, declaraciones negativas se forman mediante la adición de la palabra, no después de que el verbo.
por ejemplo, No estoy despierto.
Ellos no están listos.
En el primer ejemplo, no sigue el verbo horas. En el segundo ejemplo, no sigue el verbo son.

En Inglés hablado, las siguientes contracciones se utilizan con frecuencia:

Sin contracciones con contracciones