Be about to (estar apunto de)

Be about to
Gramatical Structure / Estructura Gramatical
(example with verb to go)
Afirmative clause / Frase afirmativa
Sujeto + to be + about to + verbo principal –> I am about to go (Estoy apunto de salir)
Negative clause / Frase negativa
Sujeto + to be + not + about to + verbo principal –> I am not about to go (No estoy apunto de salir)
Interrogative clause/ Frase interrogativa
To be + sujeto + about to + verbo principal? –> Are you about to go? (¿Estás a punto de salir?)



Usamos be about to para describir una acción o un evento inminente.
– The Ceremony is about to begin. (La ceremonia está a punto de comenzar)

El futuro con going to – The future with Going to

Going To
Gramatical Structure / Estructura Gramatical (example with verb to eat)
GOING TO + MAIN VERB

Afirmative clause / Frase afirmativa
Sujeto + to be + going to + verbo infinitivo –> Sandra is going to drink some coffee (Sandra va a tomarse un café)
Negative clause / Frase negativa
Sujeto + to be + not + going to + verbo infinitivo –>

Sandra is not going to drink some coffee (Sandra no va a tomarse un café)
Interrogative clause/ Frase interrogativa
To be + not + sujeto + going to + verbo principal en infinitivo? –>
Is Sandra going to drink a coffee? (¿Va Sandra a tomarse un café?)
Gramatical Structure / Estructura Gramatical (example with verb to go)
GOING TO + COMPLEMENT
Afirmative clause / Frase afirmativa
Sujeto + to be + going to + complemento –> They are going to the beach (Ellos van a la playa)
Negative clause / Frase negativa
Sujeto + to be + not + going to + complemento –> They are not going to the beach (Ellos no van a la playa)
Interrogative clause/ Frase interrogativa
To be + not + sujeto + going to + verbo principal en infinitivo? –>Are they going to the beach? (¿Van a la playa?)

Planes de futuro

El verbo going to se utiliza para planes de futuro ya sean inmediatos o a largo plazo.

El aspecto que lo diferencia del futuro con will es el sentido de “planificación”. De ahí que digamos “I am going to Paris in August” (Me voy a París en Agosto), cuando se trata de un plan a largo plazo. En cambio, si decimos “I will go to Paris in August”, el receptor entiende que el locutor acaba de tomar la decisión de irse de viaje a París en Agosto. Así pues la diferencia está en la intención del interlocutor.

Algo va a ocurrir con certeza

También podemos utilizar la forma going to cuando tenemos la seguridad de que algo va a suceder. En estos casos el hablante cuenta con una serie de indicadores que le permiten precedecir el futuro más o menos inmediato sin equivocarse.

Ejemplo: (si vemos a alguien poco abrigado en un día frío de lluvia)
– You are going to get a cold (Vas a coger un resfriado)

En algunas ocasiones podemos utilizar el futuro con will o el futuro con going to para hacer predicciones indistintamente. La diferencia está en el grado de seguridad del hablante.
Ejemplo:
– He will fail the examen (Él suspenderá el examen) –> Aquí tenemos un gran certeza que el va a suspender. Aquí intervienen opiniones personales subjetivas.
– He is going to fail the exam (El va a suspender el examen). –> Aquí nos basamos en hechos que nos llevan a la conclusión de que el va a suspender el examen. Seguramente no ha estudiado hasta el último momento.

Otros Usos:

Para hablar de algo  que acabamos de decidir que vamos
a hacer en el futuro.
– I’m going to write some letters this evening. (Voy a escribir
unas cartas esta noche.)

Cuando vemos una acción futura a causa de una situación del
presente.
– Microsoft is going to launch a new product. (Microsoft va
a lanzar un nuevo producto.)

Para hablar de planes o ambiciones para el futuro.
– I’m going to have a year off. (Voy a tomarme un año sabático.)
– He is going to work in a restaurant
in Paris. (Él va a trabajar en un restaurante en París.)

Tiempos Verbales: El futuro simple – Verb Tenses: The future simple

Tiempos Verbales: El futuro simple
Verb Tenses: The future simple
Gramatical Structure / Estructura Gramatical
(example with verb to eat)
Afirmative clause / Frase afirmativa
Sujeto + will + verbo principal –> I will eat (Yo comeré)
Negative clause / Frase negativa
Sujeto +will + not + verbo principal –> I will not eat (Yo no comeré)
Interrogative clause/ Frase interrogativa
Will + sujeto + verbo principal? –>Will I eat? (¿Comeré yo?)
Formas cortas
I’ll, you’ll, he’ll, she’ll… (afirmativa)
I won’t, you won’t, she won’t… (negativa)

Usamos el futuro simple en los siguientes casos:

Decisiones recientes que no han sido planeadas con antelación
Cuando hemos decidido que vamos a hacer algo mientras
estamos hablando.

– I’m cold. (Tengo frío)
– Don’t worry, I’ll close the window. (No te preocupes, ya cierro la ventana)

– I have to lose weight! I’ll stop to eating candies/sweets,
– ¡Tengo que perder peso! Dejaré de comer caramelos.
 
Predicciones
También
lo usamos para hablar sobre algo que sabemos o creemos que
pasará en un futuro.

– I
think Spain will win the football match. (Creo
que España ganará el partido de fútbol)


I think it will be important. (Creo que será importante)

Promesas, ofrecimientos,
amenazas o solicitudes

– I promise you that no one will ever come between us. (Te
prometo que nunca nadie se interpondrá entre
nosotros)

– Will you come home with me? (¿Vendrás
a casa conmigo?)

Will not / Won’t
Utilizamos la forma negativa cuando queremos decir que alguien se niega a hacer alguna cosa.
Ejemplo:
I have told her to go to the conference but se won’t. (Le he dicho que vaya a la conferencia pero no irá)

Shall
Es una partícula que se puede utilizar en los mismos contextos que will, sin embargo ha quedado relegado a contextos formales o en contextos en que la persona que habla se ofrece voluntaria para hacer algo, para ayudar, o para pedir opinión.
Ejemplos:
Contexto formal: We shall be late tomorrow (Mañana llegaremos tarde)
Ofrecimiento: Shall I open the window? (¿Quiere que abra la ventana?)
When shall we go shopping today or tomorrow? (¿Cuando deberíamos ir a comprar hoy o mañana?)

Tiempos Verbales – Pasado simple y Pasado Continuo – Verb Tenses – Past Simple and Past Continuos

Tiempos Verbales – Pasado simple y Pasado Continuo
Verb Tenses – Past Simple and Past Continuos


Past simple (Pasado simple)

Gramatical Structure / Estructura Gramatical
(example with verb to eat)
Afirmative clause / Frase afirmativa
Sujeto + verbo en pasado –> I ate (Yo comí)
Negative clause / Frase negativa
Sujeto + did + not + verbo–> I did not eat (Yo no comí)
Interrogative clause/ Frase interrogativa
Did + sujeto + verbo? –> Did I eat? (¿Comí yo?)


El pasado simple
se
utiliza para hablar de una acción concreta que comenzó
y acabó en el pasado. Lo usamos con expresiones como:
last year, yesterday, last night…

Ejemplo:
Tomy
stayed at home last night. (Tom se quedó en casa anoche.)

También podemos expresar una duración hablando
del pasado: all day, for years, for thirty minutes…

Ejemplo:

Tomy
talked to me for two hours. (Tom habló conmigo durante
dos horas.
)

En el pasado simple también se utiliza la forma “used to” (acostumbraba/solía) para expresar algo que solíamos hacer en el pasado pero que ya no hacemos.

Ejemplo:
– When I was a child I used to watch scary films. (De pequeño/a solía ver películas de miedo)

Otras partículas
La partícula Ago hace referencia a una acción terminada en un tiempo pasado y significa “hace”. Siempre se coloca al final de la frase.

Ejemplo: Jackie left school a long time ago (Hace tiempo que Jackie dejó la escuela).


Past continuous (Pasado continuo)

Gramatical Structure / Estructura Gramatical
(example with verb to eat)
Afirmative clause / Frase afirmativa
Sujeto + was/were + verbo en gerundio –> I was eating (Yo estaba comiendo)
Negative clause / Frase negativa
Sujeto + was/were + not + verbo en gerundio –> I was not eating (Yo no estaba comiendo)
Interrogative clause/ Frase interrogativa
Was/were + sujeto + verbo en gerundio? –> Was I eating? (¿Estaba yo comiendo?)

El pasado continuo lo
utilizamos para hablar de una acción concreta que comenzó
y acabó en el pasado pero que tuvo una duración continuada.

– I was driving along East street when I saw a fire
  Conducía
por la Calle del Este cuando ví fuego.

– I was running when I met Tina.
  Iba
corriendo cuando me encontré con Tina.

El gerundio en inglés – Usos en inglés

CASOS EN LOS QUE USAMOS EL GERUNDIO

Caso 1: Cuando la acción actúa como sujeto.

Ejemplo:
Driving is getting dangerous. – Conducir es peligroso

Caso 2: Después de verbos como like (gustar), hate (odiar), prefer (preferir) cuando hablas de gustos.

Ejemplo:
I hate studying history – Odio estudiar historia

Caso 3: Después de be used to.

Ejemplo:
He’s not used to wearing a hat – Él no suele llevar sombrero.

Caso 4: Después del verbo mind.

Ejemplo:
Do you mind waiting in the car? – ¿Te importa esperar en el coche?

Caso 5: Después de los verbos como start, keep on, stop, para expresar el principio y el fin de una accin.

Ejemplo:
I’m trying to keep on working – Intento seguir trabajando
Please, stop laughing at me – Por favor, para de reirte de mi
What do I need to start studying at University? – ¿Qué necesito para empezar a estudiar en la universidad?

Caso 6: Después del verbo need (necesitar).

Ejemplo:
Young people need caring adults. – Los jóvenes necesitan los cuidados de los adultos.
Caso 7: Después de la expresión: look forward to

Ejemplo:
I’m looking forward to seeing you. – Tengo muchas ganas de verte.
Caso 8: Después de la expresión: what about o how about, para sugerir cualquier cosa.

Ejemplo:
What about going to the beach? – ¿Vamos a la playa?
Caso 9: Después de la expresión: be worth.

Ejemplo:
This game is not worth buying. – No vale la pena comprar este juego.
Caso 10: Después de la expresión: can’t help.

Ejemplo:
I can’t help falling in love. – No puedo evitar enamorarme.

Conjugación verbo be (ser o estar)

Conjugación verbo be (ser o estar)

infinitivo: to be
presente: am / is / are
pasado: was / were
participio: been

Modo indicativo

Presente (present): yo soy, tú eres, él es …
sintaxis: sujeto + presente
I am It is
You are We are
He is You are
She is They are

Pretérito imperfecto /pasado simple (past simple): yo era, tú eras, él era…
sintaxis: sujeto + pasado del verbo
I was It was
You were We were
He was You were
She was They were

Pretérito perfecto compuesto (present perfect): yo he sido, tú has sido, él ha sido…
sintaxis: sujeto + have / has + participio del verbo
I have been It has been
You have been We have been
He has been You have been
She has been They have been

Pluscuamperfecto (past perfect): yo había / hube sido, tú habías /hubiste sido, él había /hubo sido…
sintaxis: sujeto + had + participio del verbo
I had been It had been
You had been We had been
He had been You had been
She had been They had been

Futuro (future): yo seré, tú serás, él será…
sintaxis: sujeto + will + verbo en infinitivo
I will be It will be
You will be We will be
He will be You will be
She will be They will be

Futuro perfecto (future perfect): yo habré sido, tú habras sido, él habrá sido…
sintaxis: sujeto + will have + participio del verbo
I will have been It will have been
You will have been We will have been
He will have been You will have been
She will have been They will have been

Condicional (conditional): yo sería, tú serías, él sería…
sintaxis: sujeto + would/should + modo infinitivo del verbo
I would be It would be
You would be We would be
He would be You would be
She would be They would be

Condicional perfecto (past conditional): yo habría o hubiera sido, tú habrías o hubieras sido…
sintaxis: sujeto + would + have + participio del verbo
I would have been It would have been
You would have been We would have been
He would have been You would have been
She would have been They would have been

Modo Subjuntivo

Presente subjuntivo: Yo sea, tú seas, él sea…
sintaxis: sujeto + infinitivo
I be It be
You be We be
He be You be
She be They be

Pretérito imperfecto: yo fuera, tú fueras, él fuera…
sintaxis: sujeto + pasado del verbo
I were It were
You were We were
He were You were
She were They were

Pluscuamperfecto: yo hubiera sido, tú hubieras sido, él hubiera sido…
sintaxis: sujeto +had + participio del verbo
I had been It had been
You had been We had been
He had been You had been
She had been They had been

Present simple (El presente simple)

Tiempos Verbales – Presente simple
Verb Tenses – Present simple

Gramatical Structure / Estructura Gramatical
(example with verb to talk)

Afirmative clause / Frase afirmativa
Sujeto + verbo principal –> I talk (Yo hablo)

Negative clause / Frase negativa
Sujeto + auxiliar negativo + verbo principal –> I don’t talk (Yo no hablo)

Interrogative clause/ Frase interrogativa
Auxiliar + sujeto + verbo principal? –> Do I talk? (¿Hablo yo?)

El presente simple se utiliza para hablar de cosas que suceden habitualmente.

Se suele utilizar con los siguientes adverbios de tiempo (ordenados según su frecuencia):
Always, every day, usually, often, sometimes, rarely, barely, hardly ever, never.

– I have my lunch every day at school. (Yo como cada día en la escuela)

Se utiliza para hablar de acciones de larga duración, hechos científicos o generalidades.

– Elephants live in Africa and India. (Los elefantes viven en África y en India)

Excepciones:
Cuando utilizamos el verbo “to be”, este siempre va delante del adverbio. Por ejemplo:
– I never go to hotels (el adverbio “never” va delante del verbo principal Go)
– I am always happy (el adverbio “always” va detrás del verbo principal Be)

Con los horarios de trenes, autobuses, metros, aviones, etc… se utiliza siempre el presente simple independientemente de que la acción esté sucediendo en el mismo momento en que hablamos. Por ejemplo:
– The plain lands at 14:30 (ahora son las 14:25)
– The train arrives on time today (estamos en la estación de tren y vemos a nuestro tren acercarse al andén)

Present Continuous en inglés – Presente continuo

Cuando se quiere expresar una acción que sigue ejecutándose al momento en que se enuncia, se emplea el tiempo Presente Continuo (Present Continuous).

La forma en que se conjuga este tiempo es bastante simple: se usa el verbo to be conjugado en presente seguido del gerundio del verbo en cuestión (se agrega -ing, por lo cual los estudiantes lo reconocen fácilmente).

John is reading a book.
She is having breakfast now.

Para realizar preguntas en este tiempo verbal, se usa primero el verbo to be conjugado, luego la persona y finalmente el verbo.

Is John reading a book?
Yes, he is.

Is she having breakfast now?
No, she isn’t.

Para realizar una pregunta específica, se usa la “question word” y luego, se sigue el mismo método.

What is John reading?
He is reading a book.

What is she having now?
She is having breakfast now.

Se puede realizar una pregunta mucho más general para saber que está haciendo una persona, usando el verbo to do (hacer).

What are you doing?

I’m reading a book.

Pues entonces, piense cómo diría lo siguiente en inglés? Estoy usando mi computadora.

Formas de caminar – Ways of walking

ways of walking En Inglés, a veces hay muchas formas de expresar algo que en español usamos simplemente una sola palabra.
Por ejemplo, en español decimos caminar, en inglés, hay un muchos verbos específicos para acciones relacionadas con el verbo andar: arrastrarse, caminar de puntillas, caminar rápido, caminar deslizándose, caminar dando tumbos,…

  • walk: move on one’s feet.
    We walked to town.
  • limp: walk unevenly because one leg is hurt.
    That man is hurt, he’s limping.
  • hobble: walk with difficulty.
    The old man hobbled along the street with the aid of his stick.
  • stagger: walk unsteadily as if about to fall.
    He was so drunk that he staggered all the way home.
  • stumble: stagger.
    She stumbled upstairs and into bed.
  • lurch: stagger.
    The drunken man was lurching along the street.
  • tiptoe: walk on the tips of one’s toes.
    She tiptoed to the bed so as not to wake the baby.
  • stroll: walk for pleasure.
    They srolled around the park.
  • amble: walk at a slow, leisurely pace.
    They ambled along for miles.
  • saunter: stroll.
    They sauntered around the park.
  • wander: move without a fixed purpose or destination.
    They enjoy wandering through the countryside.
  • roam: wander.
    They roamed through the streets for hours.
  • ramble: walk for pleasure with no particular destination.
    He likes rambling around in the country.
  • mooch: wander, walk slowly without any purpose.
    John mooched about the shops.
  • meander: walk in a slow, relaxed way instead of taking the most direct way possible. (Rivers also meander).
    As I was sitting in the park, I watched as couples seemed to meander around happily.
  • stride: walk with long steps.
    She strode across the fields.
  • strut: walk in a proud way, with the chest out and trying to look important.
    He strutted past us, ignoring our greeting.
  • swagger: walk proudly, strut.
    After winning the first prize, the player swaggered about proudly.
  • stalk: walk in a proud or angry way, with long steps.
    The teacher turned and stalked out of the classroom.
  • trudge: walk slowly and with effort because one is tired.
    We were very tired after trudging through the deep snow for two hours.
  • shuffle: walk very slowly and noisily, without lifting one’s feet off the ground..
    His legs were aching so much that he shuffled to bed.
  • stump: walk heavily and stiffly.
    They stumped up the hill.
  • plod: walk with heavy steps or with difficulty.
    Labourers plodded home through the muddy fields.
  • pace: walk with regular steps.
    He paced up and down the platform, waiting for the train.
  • march: walk with regular steps of equal length.
    Demonstrators marched through the streets of the city.
  • parade: walk or march together to celebrate or protest.
    Demonstrators paraded through the streets of the city.
  • crawl: move slowly with the body close to the ground or on hands and knees.
    A baby crawls before he can walk.
  • toddle: walk with short unsteady steps.
    Her two-year-old son toddled into the room.
  • edge: move gradually with small movements.
    Paul decided to edge away from the crowd.
  • creep: move slowly and quietly with the body close to the ground.
    The cat crept silently towards the bird.
  • sneak: go quietly and secretly in order to avoid being seen or heard.
    The boy sneaked in without paying.
  • pad: walk softly and quietly.
    The child padded barefoot down the stairs.
  • prowl: walk slowly and quietly because you are involved in a criminal activity or because you are looking for something.
    Street gangs usually prowl this alley.
  • slide: move smoothly over a surface.
    I was sliding on the ice.
  • slip: slide accidentally.
    She slipped on the ice and broke her leg.
  • dash: move quickly and suddenly, rush.
    I must dash or I’ll miss the train.
  • dart: move quickly and suddenly in the specified direction.
    She darted away when I came in.
  • scamper: run quickly and playfully.
    The children were scampering up the steps.
  • sprint: run very quickly for a short distance.
    The kids sprinted down the stairs.
  • jog: run slowly and steadily, as a way of exercising.
    She goes jogging everyday.
  • trip over: catch one’s foot on something and stumble or fall.
    He tripped over the step and fell.
  • scuttle: move quickly with short steps, because you are afraid or do not want to be noticed.
    The mouse scuttled off when we entered the room.
  • scurry: move quickly with short steps, because you are in a hurry.
    He was late so he had to scurry off to work.
  • skip: move forward with quick steps and jumps.
    The child skipped with joy towards his father.
  • lope: run with long steps.
    The man loped off after the ball.
  • lollop: run with long awkward steps.
    The dog came lolloping down the path.
  • tear: run or move quickly in a dangerous or careless way.
    When the storm started, they tore back into the house.
  • rush: hurry, move quickly because you need to get somewhere soon.
    She was late so she decided to rush off down the hall.
  • hop: move by jumping on one foot.
    The man hopped down the road after hurting his foot.
  • trip: walk with short quick steps, usually as young girls do.
    The little girl tripped happily up the road.
  • lunge: make a sudden movement towards somebody or something.
    The boxer lunged forward and grabbed his opponent by the arm.
  • scramble: climb up or down, or over something quickly and with difficulty.
    They had to scramble up to the top of the hill to see the view.
  • hike: take a long walk in the mountains or countryside, as an adventure.
    The group hiked up to the top of the hill.
  • trek: hike; make a long, difficult journey on foot.
    For ten days she trekked across the mountains of China.
  • paddle (GB), wade (US): walk for pleasure without shoes or socks in water that is not very deep.
    The children were paddling in the lake.
  • waddle: walk with short steps, moving the body from one side to another, used especially to talk about birds or people with fat bodies.
    The fat man waddled off to the restaurant for lunch.
  • prance: walk with high steps or large movements, in a confident way.
    She pranced around her room, pretending to be an actress.
  • frogmarch: force somebody to walk by holding his arms tightly by his side, usually because of bad behaviour.
    The prefect frogmarched the boy to the detention room.

Formas de mirar en inglés

Ways of looking En Inglés, a veces hay muchas formas de expresar algo que en español usamos simplemente una sola palabra.
Por ejemplo, para mirar. En inglés hay un verbo concreto para especificar lo que en español diríamos mirar detenidamente, mirar de reojo, mirar con desprecio, mirar rápidamente, mirar indiscretamente, etc.

Aquí os listamos unos ejemplos:

# look: give attention to what one is seeing; turn the eyes and see in a certain direction.
Look at that cute baby!

# see: use the power of sight.
See! Here she comes!

# watch: look at some activity or event; keep one’s eyes fixed on something.
The boys watched television all the afternoon.

# gaze: look at something for a long time, in surprise or admiration.
She gazed at him in disbelief when he told her the news.

# stare: look at something for a long time with the eyes wide open.
She was staring into space.

# gawk = gawp: stare impolitely.
Many people gathered to gawp at the crashed car.

# gape: look at something with one’s mouth open.
She gaped at him in surprise.

# glance: have a quick look at something.
She glanced at her watch.

# scan: look quickly at something without careful reading.
He scanned the newspaper over breakfast.

# glare: stare angrily or fiercely.
She didn’t answered, but just glared silently at me.

# peer: look very carefully, as if not able to see well.
He peered at me over his spectacles.

# peep: look quickly and cautiously.
He was caught peeping through the keyhole.

# observe: watch carefully.
The police observed the man entering the bank.

# glimpse: have a passing view of something or someone. Usually used in the expression to catch a glimpse of.
He could catch a glimpse of the president among the crowd.

# spot: recognize someone suddenly among many others.
He was spotted by the police boarding a plane for Berlin.

# behold: old use of the verb to see.
Behold the king!

# view: (technical) look thouroughly; regard, consider.
That film hasn’t been viewed by the censor yet.

# sight: see for the first time.
The men in the ship finally sighted land.

# leer: look in an unpleasant way, suggesting ill will or lust.
The man leered at the young girl

# blink: shut and open the eyes quickly.
How long can you stare without blinking?

# wink: close one eye briefly, as a signal to somebody.
He winked at me to show that he was just joking.

# frown: look in a worried or angry way, moving down the eyebrows together.
He read the telegram, frowning at its contents.

# scowl: frown angrily.
She was very angry and scowled at him while she talked.

# squint: look with eyes half shut or turned sideways, or through a narrow opening.
She squinted through the letter-box and saw an envelope.

# peek: look quickly and secretively.
She found her brother peeking at her diary.

# ogle: look or stare (at a woman) suggesting sexual interest.
Most women hate being ogled at.

# goggle: look with the eyes wide open in surprise or shock. (old-fashioned)
People were goggling at her as if she were from another planet.

# eyeball: look directly or closely.
Francis eyeballed a beautiful woman at the party.

# take a gander at something: (informal) look at something.

# cast an eye on/over something: look at something, examine something.

# browse: look through the pages of a book or magazine; look at the goods in a shop without really wanting to buy anything.
Sheila spent all the afternoon browsing the boutiques.

# scrutinize: examine thoroughly and carefully.
John scrutinized the painting at the museum.